Sunday, 20 April 2014


Regardless of the various controversies surrounding the origin of language, the presence of the existence of several widely differing, mutually unintelligible forms of human speech today is undeniable. And although many languages are radically different from one another in structure, the differences are merely apparent since each and every one of them can be used creatively. All languages possess the same creative potential.   
Again a close analysis of the various linguistic groups reveals regularities, patterns and syntactic connections governing the combination of sounds to form words. However, and regardless of this, the representation of objects by sounds or words is arbitrary. The arbitrariness of attaching sounds to objects account for the different linguistic groups.
The sounds which speakers of a linguistic group use in representing ideas, thoughts, experiences and objects are arbitrary in the sense that there is nothing in the objects so called that is representative of the sound. This view that language is arbitrary and a cultural construct implies that an infant learns a language by listening to the speakers of the language of the particular community into which s/he is born; and the words used in the language as well as the particular grammar or syntax of the language have developed historically as a social product and been handed down by tradition. The idea that language is arbitrary is corroborated by various linguists:
 “What we call ‘horse’, the Germans call ‘pferd’, the Frenchman ‘cheval’, the Indian ‘misatim’, and so on; one set of sounds is as unreasonable as any other”.- Bloomfield.
“I want you to remember that words have these meanings which we have given them and we give them meanings by explanations. A word has the meaning someone has given it”. - Wittgenstein.
“Language is a conventional system of habitual vocal behaviour. Before the establishment of a convention, any word could mean anything” – Yuen Ren Chao
“The fact that languages are arbitrary is sufficient evidence that they were invented. In any language, there are conventional ways of combining words to express the relations between ideas. There is no systematic correspondence between the forms of language and its meanings.” – Englefield.
The point to glean from these is that all languages are equal to one another insofar as they perform the function of aiding communication among humans within a given geographical formation. Hence one of the worst disgraces of colonisation, African scholars have said, is the destruction of native languages. The colonialists came in with the impression that everything about Africa is dark and therefore evil – from our skin colour, languages and up to our cultures generally. The impression was that we were inferior to the Whiteman. We must understand that every language is as good as the other. Every language spoken is essentially a tool for communication and once a language performs that function well, then it is as good as any other. Some people think that we are necessarily and eternally condemned through historical exigencies to the use of the English language. This to me is simply false. That we have, up till this time, failed to develop our indigenous languages to the level of creating with and in them is a fact but this has been due to negligence on our part or inability to see the worthwhileness of pursuing vehemently such a task, rather than being an inherent weakness in the languages themselves, neither is it too late to begin from now to do the needful.
 Our fathers and grandfathers had very little or no contact with the English man and his language but that did not affect their creative capabilities. They enjoyed their lives to the full, at least within the context of the social milieu in which they lived, and when the English language did eventually come to them, it was more of a distraction and interference than an asset. This much the late professor tried to describe in his widely read Things Fall Apart.  
A point to note about languages is that embedded in them are all sorts of indications of bygone cultures. This is why historians and especially anthropological linguists pay special attention to the study of different languages, in order to see through into a people’s past. Hence when we study and understand a language, we invariably learn about the history of the people who speak that language, and with it a profound acquaintance with their contemporary culture. It is also worthy to state the role language plays in knowledge acquisition. There is an intimate connection between knowledge and language because knowledge is a body of ideas, concepts and theories about what there is, expressed in one language or another. Man’s ability to pass knowledge from one generation to another is only possible because of the availability of language. Language has the capacity to represent objects and entities with abstract signs and symbols.
 As paradoxical as it may sound, it is also instructive to note that language has a limiting influence on knowledge. There is the view that language directly influences or limits thought and thus determines reality. This is what Ludwig Wittgenstein has systematized into the famous “Picture Theory of Language” with the catch phrases “The Limit of My Language is the Limit of My World” and “What we cannot say, we cannot think either”. Language, curiously has also been described as a mirror, a weapon, and a shield. In this perspective, the position of Sapir and Whorf on the relation of language to thought and behaviour is that language is a “symbolic guide to culture” such that “a change of language can transform our perception of the cosmos”.
We also need to mention the point that language is an evolutionary phenomenon – in other words it is still evolving or developing. Just like culture which is dynamic, language is also dynamic. The dynamism of language is decisively determined by the dynamics of the life experiences of the speakers of the language.
If the speakers of a language do not expect to see a particular word or situation, there will be no word for it. We need to also emphasize on the role language plays in knowledge acquisition. In fact, there is an intimate connection between knowledge and language, because when we talk of knowledge, we are talking about ideas, concepts and theories all expressed in one language or another.
Man’s ability to pass knowledge from one generation to another is only possible because of the availability of language. Language has the capacity to represent objects and entities with abstract signs and symbols. Again, knowledge is best acquired only in the context of one’s own language or mother tongue. It is more difficult to absorb and understand a concept in a secondary language than in one’s first language. This probably explains the challenge of education in Africa considering the fact that students are not taught in their mother tongue but in colonial languages. Even the national policy on education formulated by such eminent scholars as Prof. Babatunde Fafunwa, which among other things, stipulates that the medium of instruction in schools, at least during the formative years, should be in the child’s mother tongue, only exist on paper.
Language is a social product invented by human beings, used by them but again and as paradoxical as this may sound, it is true that the same human beings who invented language also has the capacity to limit and ultimately kill it. How? By simply seizing to speak it! A language cannot be above or live beyond the people that speak it.

By Emmanuel Ogheneochuko Arodovwe

follow us @yekeme

Friday, 18 April 2014


“I recognize but one mental acquisition as a necessary part of the education of a lady or gentleman, namely, an accurate and refined use of the mother tongue”.
___ Dr. Charles W. Eliot (President of Harvard for a third of a Century).
Language till date remains the most important human invention. The earliest account of the emergence of language can be found in different religious texts. For example the Bible states that in ancient times, man had a universal language which was confused and became diversified at the Tower of Babel.  The idea conveyed in Genesis 2:20 of Adam giving names to all living creatures presupposes that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.
 But what is the scientific account of the origin and nature of language? To answer this, we must turn to anthropology, history, archaeology, linguistics and philosophy. Imagine a scenario where humans have just evolved from a lower sheath – (products of evolution). Archaeological evidence indicates that modern humans, Homo sapiens, emerged within the last 150,000 years. By 30,000 BC, all other species of humanoids seem to have been replaced by Homo sapiens. Scholars agree that the different group of humans (Homo sapiens) had already, embedded in their genetic make-up, the capacity and disposition to acquire and speak a language. The natural evolution hypothesis holds that at some point in their evolutionary development, humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible. Words are, scientifically speaking, not inborn, but the capacity to acquire a language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device). There is also a consensus among experts that human language must have evolved from inarticulate sounds, produced by our ancestors in the course of human evolution. However no one can say exactly the point or date when language finally emerged. But then, there is incontrovertible evidence that the human brain evolved the capacity for spoken language in tandem with the modification of the organs in the mouth particularly the larynx which makes speech possible.
Regardless of whether language was a special gift from God, a natural evolutionary acquisition, or an ingenuous, conscious human invention made at some point in our species’ history, what is not in doubt is that about 6000 languages exist in the world today. Perhaps an important question to ask is whether there was one or more than one original language. Three schools of thought have attempted answers.
The Monogenesis school holds that there was a single original language. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, this language was confused by divine intervention at the Tower of Babel. But exactly what this first language was remains a matter of controversy. Basque, German, Greek, and Sanskrit have been suggested. A Swedish philologist claimed that in the Garden of Eden, God spoke Swedish, Adam spoke Danish and the serpent spoke French. One wonders if this is true, how they were able to understand one another.
The Mother Tongue theory is a variant of the monogenesis school, though without the latter’s religious colouration. It holds that one original language spoken by a single group of Homo sapiens perhaps as early as 150 000 years ago gave rise to all human languages spoken on earth today as a result of colonisation of other humans across continents, leading to the diverging of this original mother tongue to form the numerous languages spoken today.

The Polygenesis school holds the view of parallel evolution. They hold that as humans evolved parallel in more than one location, each group developed its own unique language. For them, given the genetic predisposition for language, the exact language spoken by different human groups all over the world is a reflection of environmental factors. Like other social animals e.g. the bees, the elephants, the dolphins, the chimpanzees, etc., human beings evolved language as a means of intra species communication. The first mode of communication was inarticulate sounds which were accompanied with gestures. Gradually, and as a result of continuous process of evolution, man developed what is now described as the Second Signal System – be continued
by........Emmanuel Ogheneochuko Arodovwe
follow us @ yekeme

Monday, 14 April 2014

OMG ! The tour trip you've all been waiting 4 is here @ last.......

Tour trip to Opa (staff) Oranmiyan in the ancient lle ife & mystery water fall in erin ijesha both in osun state, the wonder of nature will not be left out, the cold & warm spring in ikogosi, ekiti state.

Date: 29th-31st of may 2014.
fee: N7,500 (includes transportation, feeding & hotel accomodation)

For enquiries & reservations call: 08027202995,08034377508,08171588722, BB: 2675398F
Account details: Hills creative concept
0137102977 GTBank
u can also follow us on twitter @hillsTours.  ......

u can't afford to b told!!!!!!

Powered by Hills Creative Concepts 

media partner: yekipedia

follow us on twitter @yekeme

Tuesday, 8 April 2014


If you're between 18 and 35… you should not miss #EquippedToExcel

Enjoy an afternoon of music, inspiration and information and get a head start in life!

 #EquippedToExcel will connect you to a vibrant community where you’ll be one of the first people to know about job opportunities & internships from leading companies. 

You’ll also get the opportunity for mentorships under successful and experienced professionals and business leaders. 

Very importantly, you stand a chance to be selected for a FREE training programme that will prepare you for a successful career.

Time: 12 noon; Date: Saturday 26 April 2014; Venue: Afe Babalola Auditorium, University of Lagos. 

Speakers include: Elisa Salazar-Chukuma – MD/CEO of ES-Africa; Abisola Longe – MD/CEO of Human Capacity Development Consultants (HCDC); Chukuka Chukuma – Partner & Co-Founder of Racecourse Capital; Carlton Williams – Entrepreneur and Pastor of High Life Church, Lekki. Lagos

Music by Blessomania; Spirit Wind; Aijay Desmond; Ahide Adum & Ona Aiyeola

Don't miss this once-in-a-lifetime-opportunity

join the conversation online to get latest happenings on #EquippedToExcel
or follow me on twitter @yekeme 

Monday, 7 April 2014

APC 's New Nigeria Dream & the Nightmares to come.

Few weeks ago the foremost opposition party in Nigeria, the All Progressive Congress, APC indirectly flagged off her campaign with the APC summit in Abuja. There, her 2015 campaign message became subliminally unveiled. "The New Nigeria" it chorused.

"The New Nigeria...", I pondered on for a long while. This is a very great caption I must confess. But I would not assume that APC understands politics and the aspect of Campaign  that I would keep shut. It will be a case of once beaten twice shy. I cannot forget in a hurry how I watched the opposition play away the opportunity to bring the desired change to Nigeria in 2011.

The New Nigeria concept is a very sellable one. It is an encompassing concept that defines the political behaviour of Nigerians. First, Nigerians have voting apathy. Two, there are more fresh voters in 2015. An average Nigerian on the street is either tired of this government or the country or the both.  It is either you hear an average man say let us break up or let there be revolution. This suggests that proposing something new to them- something different from what is the case- but with the hope of bringing them good governance would win their votes.

The Party's think tank already put the APC in a tight corner. The one that will either win her the polls or expose it to the most humiliating defeat in recent Nigeria. Seriously,  my fear is the possibility of a totalitarian Nigeria. Is that not enough reason to fear? The tyranny of PDP will wield stronger in 2015 and beyond if they ever win than power once again . It would mean 20years of PDP rule by 2019.It would look like the end of the world. Transformation will turn to absolute deformation. It could only get worse my fake patriot, listen to wisdom.

However, APC, should understand that a naked person cannot promise people clothes. The stakes are high now and there will be tougher hurdles on the route.

My bosom friend has a message to add -a Jonathan Apologist though- one of the few young people that I know to be cynical about APC's Change Story.

"You cannot project a new Nigeria under someone who served in the Sector where the greatest kleptocrat stole funds most. Also, it will be hard for you to preach a new Nigeria with the personality of a Candidate who ran as lieutenant in the casted Army." he believes.

How will APC manage to convince the people to believe in her product will be a herculean task especially as it is a poll to unseat the sitting President? It all begins with the right candidates and the best campaign network.

Showunmi Rex is a Writer, Public Speaker, Entrepreneur & Socio-Political Philosopher. His Interests are Business&Politics.
Twitter Handle (@remirex)

 twitter @yekeme

Thursday, 3 April 2014

How to Sell yourself to the World

Brief: We need to Sell what we have and what we are to the World

When we were born we came with innate ideas and natural abilities . Everything we needed to enable our survival, it seems, came with us: a mind to grasp and learn, to function, survive and contribute to humanity.  And then, it’s important to admit: the role of Expression and Communication in all our activities.

When a baby weeps when it is hungry it is communicating to survive, to remind or request for something to quench thirst and hunger, or destroy/defuse pain.  In most cases, the baby gets all that it needs. That is the beginning and we never get satisfied till our last breathe. Even at dying times we still need wishes we may want fulfilled after we are gone.

How do we get all that we want? Some within our reach others with the help  of  people. But, we need to win their heart to get the help. Whether you are a start-up entrepreneur in need of Angel  Investors or a politician seeking election or re- election. Even a salesman trying to increase sales of his product; we all need that charm –attractive feature—that endears us to people’s heart. We need the art of learning  how to sell our person or product to the world.

*Considering these points below can help us achieve that art*

•Re-Examine Yourself:
Socrates, the Ancient Philosopher, brought out a new discourse on Humanity into man’s reasoning. Man know thyself   was the theme of his teachings. We need to introspect and retrospect into the happenings within and without. When we take a fact finding look into happenings around us only then will we understand how some stuffs unfold. It is an unbelievable fact that a large chunk of the world population lives on prejudices. An average Nigerian will get a credit in that . However, looking at things  critically will at least open up our eyes to see the true nature of our challenges and what we need to do about them. It can save us a lot of time and pain .Examining our lives will enable us to re-strategize , figure out what’s functioning in our lives and what is not .Also , we can  see ourselves in the true light of things—just as we truly are.

•Determine What your True Goals are:
 When we understand ourselves better we can bring to fore our true heart yearning as goals. Discovering our passion will navigate  us  to push forward in the direction of our goals. Our passion writes and shapes our goals. It  increases our drive and strengthens our focus, too.

•Find an Association:

As a social being, man always find it necessary to associate or be a part of a group. For one to sell himself   to the world he needs a platform, it  often begins unconsciously. One’s immediate family are the first observers of one’s capabilities and that’s where the first ‘advert comes from.
 However, as growth increases, stage to stage has its relationship formations; friendship, falling in love , choice of sport, hobbies, political affiliations ,Fraternity ,  etc. You are as good as your association.
Anyone willing to sell himself to the world must first be a part of a formation who will first accept him and take cognizance of his potentials and qualities. They will act as an outreach for launching himself. The church is one of the most viable association to attach to. Most great musicians often give credit to the Choir as where it first began. Also, people have risen to greatness because of the connection, assistance  and the relationship they kept over time.
These days Social media is forming a stronger bond across ties. Entertainment, politics, Business,etc  have social network platforms to relate with family, friends, associates and partners as well as the world at large.

•Being and Giving the Best:

In the Business world, as it is in any endeavour, building a brand is as important as anything. Business thrives on the belief that dealings will be handled by the best hands. If your work depicts quality it won’t take time to be easily noticeable while people are willing to pay through their nose to get value for their money. The Holy scripture talks about a diligent man that would ‘stand before kings and not mean men’. The biblical story of Joseph explains this better: when the need arose to solve the King’s problems, it didn’t take much thinking before Joseph was recommended. Hardwork and giving  the best are like necessary beings. You cannot bring forth the best without hardwork, I mean smart work. Continuous mastery of  your craft , more than anything else, endows a man with charming personalities.

•Value and character:
 You can belong to an association, give quality services but if you have a character flaw, you are bound to face huge resentments in acceptance by people. Sporting World explains this concept very well. Talents and hard work are secondary to discipline and character. When you share constructive moral values people will easily like and stand for you. You have won a special place in their heart. As a wise saying quotes: 'people dont care how much you know until they know how much you care. '

By SHOWUNMI REX (@remirex)

Showunmi Rex is a Writer,  Public Speaker, Socio-political Philosopher and Entrepreneur.  His Interests are Business and Politics.

follow us on twitter @yekeme 

Wednesday, 2 April 2014

Choosing Vision Over Gains; Model For Leadership

The political arena in Nigeria is now dominated by stakeholders and
helmsmen who put personal benefits ahead and above serving the people- their primary responsibility. Their system of new politics is to loot voraciously funds from state treasury with the cliché "dividend of

Their actions have brought us to the point where we ask ourselves
a very fundamental question whether political interests should be
based on gains or visions? Perhaps we are missing the purpose of governance

Unlike many developed countries in the world where politics is played based on vision and ideologies, ours seem to have deviated from this very essence. We now see elections without clear and meaningful manifestoes as normal provided their message tickle our ears or sound interesting. Mind you, once candidates share gifts and money in the name of mobilisation the election is a done deal. Highest bidder electioneering.

We can hardly change much about this situation, the electorates already have this mindset that the electioneering season is the best and only time they can benefit from the largesse of state.

Niger Delta politicians exhibits more of this "gain devoured” politics
With Chief Ibori and Chief Alamieyeseigha as veterans based on the "badge of honor" they proudly carry. We can't ignore the traits and efforts of Diezani
Alison-Madueke and Ngozi Okonjo Iweala. What a man can do a woman can do better. NOI and DAM's latest saga help validate the
above assertions.
Though it is a fact that many of our politicians
today are accidental politicians (El-rufai wrote a book to emphasize
that) and their sudden entry into the "lucrative business" was due to
the fact that those with genuine intention to build and develop our
country did not believe in the dish the military was serving in 1999.
So those who were bold enough to handle it were solely interested in
what they could get out at least before any military usurpation as it happened in 1993.

Looking at the political arena of Delta State at the moment, the major
players and stakeholders are keen on protecting their interests in other to
remain relevant. This term, in Nigerian politics, means how much money or contract you can get from the government? As if not enough, those pests use their influence and relevance to
seek for fresh ways to loot and embezzle state funds for personal
gains and frivolous activities.

With lack of vision and the constant embezzlement of funds, states are left with failed projects and neglected contracts.
Administrators award contracts to their cronies and associate who often times falter in executing such projects, Empowerment. Little wonder all that the youths can
boast of is the state of "no jobs, no income and no assets". This
intense pressure of lack of sustainable means of livelihood has led
several unemployed youths to get involved in crimes and illegal

When we look far and near there's only one advice to give--- Let's get ready, we too must participate in building our future; we
should focus on ideological leadership and visionaries whose main
interest lies with the people. Men with dreams and vision to build and develop
our state and not kleptocrats and corrupt leaders who are merely
concerned about the gains.

*Kome Agbauduta is the Co-founder of Delta Forte Network and Founding Partner of KREED 

follow us on twitter @yekeme

Tuesday, 1 April 2014


The high handedness and fraud of government officials in Delta state is unfathomable, especially with officials in the ministry of education and the bursary board.
Today genuine students of delta state pursuing various degree programmes do not and we insist do not get the yearly bursary entitlement due to them.
Reason been that, it has been PROVEN that the Honourable Commissioner for Education Prof HOPE EGHAGHA, opened over 23000 fake bank accounts used for Bursary racket annually  since 2009. That HOPE EGHAGHA cannot account for the N2billion annually release to him for students scholarship since 2009.
That genuine students are deny payment after fulfilling the application requirements even in most cases paying for the application process yet they don’t get their Bursary.
The above reason has informed students of delta state origin to make their protest known to the world of this evil of the HONOURABLE COMMISSIONER.
We have been also informed that the billionaire hearted Governor in terms of bribes, media campaign and corruption has taken his good time to ensure that police investigation into this issues do not succeed.
If the government of Dr. UDUAGHAN says these allegations are all lies, let them come out to tell the world as we the students are waiting to give our own side of the pains we are going through as a result of government neglect of its primary responsibility.
We urge well meaning Nigerians to join our campaign....... #SAVEDELTASTATE
National Assoiciation of Delta State Students {Unilag Chapter}
watch out for the protest